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1218. Born Rudolph I. of Germany, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
1308. Murdered Albert I. of Habsburg
1539. Died Isabella of Portugal, Queen of Spain
1555. Died Pope Marcellus II.
1572. Died Pope Pius V.


1300. Died Blanche of Artois, regent of Navarre
1451. Born René II., Duke of Lorraine
1458. Born Leonor of Viseu, Queen of Portugal
1519. Died Leonardo da Vinci, Italian painter and inventor
1729. Born Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia


1152. Died Matilda of Boulogne, Queen of England
1270. Died Béla IV., King of Hungary and Croatia
1469. Born Niccoló Machiavelli, Italian historian and political autor
1481. Died Mehmed II., Ottoman Sultan
1758. Died Pope Benedict XIV.
1764. Born Elisabeth of France, sister of Louis XVI.
1870. Born Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein


1008. Born Henry I. of France
1519. Died Lorenzo II. de`Medici, Duke of Urbino
1774. Died Anthony Ulrich II., Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1921. Born Edo Murtić, Croatian painter


984. Died Gerberga of Saxony, Queen of Western Francia
1194. Died Casimir II., King of Poland
1210. Born Alfonso III., King of Portugal
1309. Died Charles II., King of Naples
1525. Died Frederick III. of Saxony
1705. Died Leopold I., Holy Roman Emperor, King of Croatia, Hungary and Bohemia
1747. Born Leopold II., Holy Roman Emperor, King of Croatia, Hungary and Bohemia
1821. Died Napoleon I. of France
1827. Died Frederick Augustus I. of Saxony


1501. Born Pope Marcellus II.
1574. Born Pope Innocent X.
1682. Louis XIV. of France moves his court to Versailles
1769. Born Ferdinand III., Grand Duke of Tuscany
1856. Born Sigismund Freud, Austrian psychiatrist
1910. Died Edward VII., King of the United Kingdom


973. Died Otto I., Holy Roman Emperor
1328. Born Louis VI., the Roman, Duke of Bavaria
1530. Born Louis I. de Bourbon, Prince de Conde, French Huguenot general
1682. Died Tsar Feodor of Russia
1700. Born Gerard van Swieten, Dutch-born physician
1718. Died Mary of Modena, wife of James II. of England
1763. Born Józef Antoni Poniatowski, Polish prince
1767. Born Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia
1825. Died Antonio Salieri, Italian composer


1319. Died Haakon V., King of Norway
1326. Born Joanna I. of Auvergne, Queen of France
1460. Born Frederick I., Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
1587. Born Victor Amadeus I., Duke of Savoy


1315. Died Hugh V., Duke of Burgundy
1446. Died Mary of Enghien, Queen of Naples
1892. Born Zita of Bourbon-Parma, Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia
1949. Died Prince Louis II. of Monaco

MAY 10

1034. Died Mieszko II. of Poland
1290. Died Duke Rudolph II. of Austria
1774. Died Louis XV., King of France
1774. Louis XVI. becomes King of France
1788. Born Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, German Queen

MAY 11

912. Died Leo VI., Byzantine Emperor
1610. Died Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary
1720. Born Karl Friedrich Hieronymus Freiherr von Münchhausen, German adventurer
1733. Born Victoire of France, daughter of King Louis XV.
1745. Battle of Fontenoy

MAY 12

1003. Died Pope Silvester II.
1012. Died Pope Sergerius IV.
1382. Died Queen Joan I. of Naples
1469. Born Gustav I. of Sweden
1590. Born Cosimo II. de`Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
1670. Born Frederick Augustus I. of Poland
1708. Died Adolf Friedrich II. of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
1725. Born Louis Philippe I., Duke of Orléans

MAY 13

1176. Died Matthias I., Duke of Lorraine
1254. Born Maria of Brabant, Queen of France
1312. Died Theobald II., Duke of Lorraine
1497. Pope Alexander VI. excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola
1655. Born Pope Innocent XIII.
1717. Born Empress Maria Theresia of Austria, Queen of Croatia, Hungary and Bohemia
1742. Born Archduchess Maria Christina of Teschen
1792. Born Pope Pius IX.
1822. Born Francis of Assisi of Bourbon, King Consort of Spain

MAY 14

964. Died Pope John XII.
1316. Born Charles IV., Holy Roman Emperor
1553. Born Margaret of Valois, wife of Henry IV.
1608. Died Charles III., Duke of Lorraine
1610. Died Henry IV. of France
1643. Died Louis XIII. of France
1666. Born Victor Amadeus II. of Sardinia
1710. Born Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden
1912. Died Frederick VIII. of Denmark

MAY 15

1470. Died Charles VIII. of Sweden
1720. Born Maximilian Hell, Slovakian astronomer
1773. Born Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Austrian statesman

MAY 16

1204. Baldwin IX. crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire
1265. Died Simon Stock, English saint
1490. Born Duke Albert of Prussia
1532. Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England
1568. Mary Queen of Scots flees to England
1611. Born Pope Innocent XI.
1926. Died Mehmed VI., last Ottoman Sultan

MAY 17

1365. Died Louis VI., the Roman Duke of Bavaria
1510. Died Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter
1590. Anne of Denmark is crowned Queen of Scotland
1628. Born Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria, Regent of the Tyrol
1727. Died Catherine I. of Russia
1768. Born Caroline of Brunswick, Queen consort of the United Kingdom
1886. Born Alfonso XIII. of Spain

MAY 18

1711. Born Ruđer Josip Bošković, Croatian atomic theorist
1797. Born Frederick Augustus II. of Saxony
1804. Napoleon Bonaparte is proclaimed Emperor of the French
1829. Died Maria Josepha of Saxony, Queen consort of Spain
1868. Born Nicholas II., Tsar of Russia

MAY 19

1296. Died Pope Celestine V.
1536. Died Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII. of England
1568. Queen Elizabeth I. of England has Mary Queen of Scots arrested
1744. Born Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
1797. Born Maria Isabel of Portugal, Queen of Spain

MAY 20

1277. Died Pope John XXI.
1503. Died Lorenzo de`Medici, Italian patron
1622. Died Osman II., Ottoman Sultan
1648. Died Wladislaus IV., King of Poland

MAY 21

987. Died Louis V., King of France
1254. Died Conrad IV. of Germany
1481. Died Christian I., King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway
1527. Born Philip II., King of Spain
1863. Born Archduke Eugen of Austria, Austrian field marshal
1864. Born Princess Stephanie of Belgium

MAY 22

337. Died Constantine the Great, Roman Emperor
1667. Died Pope Alexander VII.
1762. Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Hamburg
1770. Born Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom
1859. Died Ferdinand II., King of Two Sicilies

MAY 23

1052. Born Philip I. of France
1125. Died Henry V., Holy Roman Emperor
1498. Died Girolamo Savonarola, Italian religious reformer
1568. The Netherlands declare their independence from Spain
1670. Died Ferdinando II. de`Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

MAY 24

15. BC Born Julius Caesar Germanicus, Roman commander
1153. Died David I., King of Scotland
1612. Died Robert Cecil, English statesman
1621. The Protestant Union is formally dissolved
1671. Born Gian Gastone de`Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
1819. Born Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom

MAY 25

615. Died Pope Boniface IV.
992. Died Mieszko I., first lord and knight of Poland
1085. Died Pope Gregory VII.
1261. Died Pope Alexander IV.
1555. Died Henry II. of Navarre
1786. Died Peter III. of Portugal
1846. Born Princess Helena of the United Kingdom

MAY 26

946. Died Edmund I., King of England
1478. Born Pope Clement VII.
1512. Died Bayezid II., Ottoman Sultan
1566. Born Mehmed III., Ottoman Emperor
1679. Died Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria

MAY 27

927. Battle of the Bosnian Highlands, Croatian army led by King Tomislav defeat the Bulgarian Army
927. Died Simeon I., Tsar of Bulgaria
1153. Malcolm IV. becomes King of Scotland
1328. Philip VI. is crowned King of France
1508. Died Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan
1564. Died John Calvin, French religious reformer
1615. Died Marguerite de Valois of France
1626. Born William II., Prince of Orange
1707. Died Marquise de Montespan, French mistress of Louis XIV. of France
1756. Born Maximilian I., King of Bavaria

MAY 28

1357. Died Alfonso IV., King of Portugal
1371. Born John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy
1524. Born Selim II., Ottoman Sultan
1641. Born Janez Vajkard Valvasor, Slovenian polymath
1660. Born George I., King of Great Britain

MAY 29

1259. Died Christopher I., King of Denmark
1379. Died Henry II., King of Castile
1453. Died Constantine XI. Palaeologus, last Byzantine Emperor
1627. Born Anne, Duchess of Montpensier and French Princess
1630. Born Charles II. of England
1814. Died Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress of France

MAY 30

1159. Died Wladislaus II. the Exile of Poland
1252. Died Ferdinand III., King of Castile
1431. Died Joan of Arc, French heroine and saint
1574. Died Charles IX., King of France
1653. Born Claudia Felicitas of Austria, Empress consort of Germany
1713. Born Princess Caroline Elizabeth of Great Britain
1778. Died Voltaire, French philosopher

MAY 31

1410. Died Martin I., King of Aragon
1469. Born Manuel I. of Portugal
1557. Born Feodor I. of Russia
1613. Born John George II., Elector of Saxony
1640. Born Michal Wisniowiecki, King of Poland
1740. Died Frederick Wilhelm I., King of Prussia
1753. Born Pierre Viturnien Vergniaud, French revolutionary
1809. Died Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer
1857. Born Pope Pius XI.