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1109. Died Alfonso VI., King of Castile
1481. Born Christian II., King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway
1506. Born Louis II., King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia
1534. Born Frederick II., King of Denmark
1839. Died Mahmud II., Ottoman Sultan


419. Born Valentinian III., Roman Emperor
1262. Born Arthur II., Duke of Brittany
1298. Died Adolf of Nassau, King of Germany
1363. Born Mary, Queen of Sicily
1492. Born Elizabeth Tudor, English princess
1566. Died Nostradamus, French apothecary and astrological consultant
1674. Died Eberhard III., Duke of Würtemberg
1932. Died Manuel II. of Portugal


1423. Born Louis XI., King of France
1642. Died Maria de`Medici, Queen of France
1676. Born Leopold I., Prince of Anhalt-Desau, Prussian field marshal
1704. Died Sophia Alekseyevna, regent of Russia
1743. Born Sophia Magdalena, Queen consort of Sweden
1918. Died Mehmed V., Sultan of the Ottoman Empire


965. Died Pope Benedict V.
1546. Born Murat III., Ottoman Sultan
1780. Died Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, Austrian military leader
1799. Born Oscar I., King of Sweden


1316. Died Infante Ferdinand of Majorca
1321. Born Joan of The Tower, Queen consort of Scotland
1375. Died Charles III. of Alençon, French archbishop
1547. Born Garzia de`Medici, Prince of Tuscany
1666. Died Albert VI. of Bavaria
1670. Born Dorothea Sophie of the Palatinate, Duchess of Parma
1717. Born Pedro III., consort of Maria I. of Portugal


918. Died William I., Duke of Aquitaine
966. Died Berenger, King of Italy
1189. Died Henry II., King of England
1218. Died Eudes III., Duke of Burgundy
1249. Died Alexander II., King of Scotland
1415. Died Jan Hus, Bohemian reformer
1535. Died Thomas More, English statesman
1553. Died Edward VI., King of England
1762. Died Peter III., Tsar of Russia
1789. Born Maria Isabella of Spain, Queen of the Two Sicilies
1796. Born Nicholas I., Tsar of Russia
1838. Born Vatroslav Jagić, Croatian scholar
1868. Born Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom


1207. Born Elisabeth of Hungary
1304. Died Pope Benedict XI.
1307. Died Edward I., King of England
1528. Born Anna of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria
1537. Died Madeline of Valois, Queen of Scotland
1572. Died Sigismund II. Augustus, King of Poland


975. Died Edgar, King of England
1153. Died Pope Eugene III.
1545. Born Don Carlos of Spain
1623. Died Pope Gregory XV.
1792. Born Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Queen of Bavaria
1830. Born Grand Duchess Alexandra Josifovna of Altenburg
1859. Died Oscar I., King of Sweden and Norway


518. Died Anastasius I., Byzantine Emperor
1386. Died Leopold III. of Austria
1511. Born Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, Queen of Denmark
1578. Born Ferdinand II., Holy Roman Emperor
1654. Died Ferdinand IV. of Germany
1737. Died Gian Gastone de`Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
1746. Died Philip V. of Spain
1786. Born Sophie Hélène Béatrix, Princess of France
1848. Born Robert I., Duke of Parma


138. Died Hadrian, Roman Emperor
1103. Died Eric I., King of Denmark
1290. Died Ladislaus IV. of Hungary
1452. Born James III., King of Scotland
1480. Died René I., King of Naples
1509. Born John Calvin, French religious reformer
1517. Born Odet de Coligny, French cardinal and Protestant
1559. Died Henry II., King of France
1584. Died William I. of Orange
1590. Died Archduke Charles II. of Austria
1711. Born Princess Amelia of Great Britain
1856. Born Nikola Tesla


472. Died Anthemius, Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
937. Died Rudolph II., King of Burgundy
1183. Died Otto I. Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria
1274. Born Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland
1302. Died Robert II. of Artois, French soldier
1657. Born Frederick I., King of Prussia
1662. Born Maximilian II. Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
1766. Died Elisabeth Farnese, wife of Philip V. of Spain
1866. Born Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine


783. Died Bertrada of Laon, wife of Pippin III.
1596. Born Michael I., Tsar of Russia
1712. Died Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland
1870. Born Louis II. of Monaco
1918. Died Dragutin Lerman, Croatian explorer


100.BC Born Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic
40. Born Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman Governor of Britain
939. Died Pope Leo VII.
1189. Died Matilda of Saxony, daughter of Henry II. of England
1590. Born Pope Clement X.
1608. Born Ferdinand III., Holy Roman Emperor
1621. Died Archduke Albert of Austria
1645. Died Michael I., Tsar of Russia
1776. Born Caroline of Baden, Queen of Bavaria
1798. Born Alexandra Feodorovna, Tsarina of Russia
1889. Born Louise of Mountbatten, Queen of Sweden


664. Died Deusedit, Archbishop of Canterbury
1223. Died Philip II., King of France
1602. Born Jules Mazarin, French statesman and cardinal
1610. Born Ferdinando II. de`Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
1790. Died Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon, Austrian field marshal


1291. Died Rudolph I. of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor
1406. Died Duke William of Austria
1553. Born Archduke Ernest of Austria
1704. Born August Gottlieb Spangenberg, German religious leader
1737. Born Princess Louise-Marie of France, daughter of King Louis XV.
1837. Born Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Queen of Portugal


1194. Born Saint Clare of Assisi, Italian follower of Francis of Assisi
1342. Died Charles I. King of Hungary
1377. Coronation of Richard II. of England
1557. Died Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of Henry VIII. of England
1611. Born Archduchess Cecilia Renata of Austria, Queen of Portugal


924. Died Edward the Elder, King of England
1070. Died Baldwin VI., Count of Flanders
1762. Catherina II. becomes tsar of Russia
1918. The family of Nicolas II. of Russia are murdered


1501. Born Isabella of Burgundy, wife of Christian II. of Denmark
1591. Died Jacobus Gallus, Slovenian composer
1552. Born Rudolf II., Holy Roman Emperor
1608. Died Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg


514. Died Pope Symmachus
1415. Died Phillipa of Lancaster, wife of John I. of Portugal
1543. Died lady Mary Boleyn, mistress of King Henry VIII. of England
1687. Died Laura Martinozzi, Duchess of Modena
1810. Died Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of Prussia
1822. Born Augusta of Cambridge, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz


985. Died Pope Boniface VII.
1031. Died Robert II., King of France
1454. Died John II., King of Castile
1524. Died Claude of France, wife of Louis XII. of France
1774. Born Auguste Marmont, French marshal
1858. Born Ivan Vučetić, Croatian anthropologist
1890. Born George II., King of Greece
1903. Died Pope Leo XIII.


1403. Died Henry Percy, English soldier and nobleman
1425. Died Manuel II. Paleologus, Byzantine Emperor
1798. Died François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Austrian field marshal
1858. Born Maria Christina of Austria, Queen of Spain


1210. Born Joan of England, Queen consort of Scotland
1461. Died Charles VII. of France
1478. Born Philip I., King of Castile
1510. Born Alessandro de`Medici, Duke of Florence
1676. Died Pope Clement X.


1301. Born Duke Otto of Austria
1373. Died Brigitta, Swedish saint
1339. Born Louis I., King of Naples
1503. Born Anna Jagello, Queen of the Romans
1649. Born Pope Clement XI.


1115. Died Matilda, Countess of Tuscany
1148. Louis VII. of France lays siege to Damascus
1568. Died Don Carlos, Prince of Spain
1660. Born Charles Talbot, English politician


306. Died Constantius Chlorus, Roman Emperor
1016. Born Casimir I., Duke of Poland
1109. Born Alfonso I. of Portugal
1404. Born Philip I., Duke of Brabant
1409. Died Martin I., King of Sicily
1492. Died Pope Innocent VIII.


811. Died Nicephorus I., Byzantine Emperor
1471. Died Pope Paul II.
1678. Born Joseph I., Holy Roman Emperor
1801. Died Archduke Maximilian Franz of Austria
1867. Died Otto, King of Greece


1101. Died Conrad, King of Germany and Italy
1276. Died James I., King of Aragon
1365. Died Rudolf IV., Duke of Austria
1452. Born Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan


450. Died Theodosius II., Roman Emperor
1057. Died Pope Victor II.
1230. Died Leopold VI., Duke of Austria
1347. Born Margherita of Durazzo, Queen of Naples
1849. Died Charles Albert, King of Sardinia
1860. Born Anastasia Mikhailovna, Grand Duchess of Russia


1030. Died Olaf II. of Norway
1099. Died Pope Urban II.
1108. Died Philip I. of France
1644. Died Pope Urban VIII.
1900. Died Umberto I., King of Italy


579. Died Pope Benedict I.
1549. Born Ferdinando I. de`Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
1683. Died Maria Theresa of Spain, Queen of France
1898. Died Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of the German Empire


1396. Born Philip III., Duke of Burgundy
1556. Died Ignatius Loyola, Spanish priest and founder of the Jesuits
1737. Born Augusta, Princess of Great Britain
1750. Died John V., King of Portugal